Sources & Methods


The unadjusted Gender Pay Gap (GPG) represents the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and female paid employees, as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees.

Data are broken down by economic activity (NACE: Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community), form of economic, working profile (full-time/part-time), and age classes (six age groups) of employees.

Methodological description

As from reference year 2006 onwards, the GPG data is based on the methodology of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) (Council Regulation (EC) No. 530/1999 of 9 March 1999 concerning structural statistics on earnings and on labour costs) which is carried out every four years, commencing with reference year 2002.

Whereas the GPG figures are directly computed from the four-yearly SES, the annual estimates for intermediate years are compiled on the basis of administrative sources and other national surveys, including the Job Vacancies Survey and the Labour Force Survey.  Annual estimates are revised every four years when the data from SES becomes available.

Accuracy and reliability of data

Information on the accuracy and reliability of data can be viewed in a dedicated metadata report available on the NSO’s metadata website.

Timeliness and punctuality of data

Data is collected every December of the year following the reference year n.  Data requested by Eurostat refers to year n-1.

Accessibility and clarity of data

At a national level, the total GPG rate is published in a new release on labour market related indicators.  Additional breakdowns of the GPG data can be downloaded from Eurostat’s online database.

Coherence and comparability/consistency of data

GPG data is harmonised geographically across all European Union Member States as common definitions and concepts are agreed and used.

The method applied in deriving GPG information for the in between years, however, differs between countries.

​GPG statistics are comparable from 2007 onwards.


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